Tabarka

Place in Jendouba Governorate, Tunisia
Tabarka
طبرقة
VueCollineTabarka.JPG
36°57′16″N 8°45′29″E / 36.95444°N 8.75806°E / 36.95444; 8.75806Coordinates: 36°57′16″N 8°45′29″E / 36.95444°N 8.75806°E / 36.95444; 8.75806
CountryFlag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia
GovernorateJendouba Governorate
Elevation
15.4 ft (4.7 m)
Population
 (2014)
 • City19,819
 • Density10,090/sq mi (3,894/km2)
 • Urban
41,293
 • Urban density80/sq mi (31/km2)
 • Metro
48.993
 • Metro density170/sq mi (64/km2)
Time zoneUTC1 (CET)
Postal Code
8110

Tabarka (Arabic: طبرقة Ṭbarqa) is a coastal town located in north-western Tunisia, close to the border with Algeria. Tabarka's history is a mosaic of Berber, Punic, Hellenistic, Roman, Arabic, Genoese and Turkish culture. The town is dominated by an offshore rock on which there remains a Genoese castle. Nationalist leader Habib Bourguiba, later president of post-independence Tunisia, was exiled on Tabarka by the French colonial authorities in 1952.[1] Tourist attractions include coral fishing, the Coralis Festival of underwater photography,[2] and its annual jazz festival.[3]

Name

Tabarka was known to the Carthaginians as TBRKʿN (Punic: 𐤕𐤁𐤓𐤊𐤏𐤍).[4][5] This was transcribed into Greek as Thaúbraka (Θαύβρακα) and into Latin as Thabraca.[6][7] In modern day Berber it is known as Tabarka or Tbarga, while its Arabic name is Ṭbarqa (طبرقة).

History

Tarbarka island, 17th century. Note the Genoese flag on the castle.

Although older sources placed Thabraca within the Roman province of Numidia, recent ones agree on placing it in the Roman province of Africa, known also as Africa Proconsularis.[8][9][10][11] It was a Roman colony.[12] It was connected by a road with Simitthu, which it served as a port for the export of its famous marble.[12] The rebellious Roman official Gildo, the brother of Firmus, committed suicide in Thabraca.[12] Under the Vandal king Gaiseric, the town had a monastery for men and a convent for women.[12]

Fort diagram
Tabarka nature.jpg

From 1540 to 1742, the Genoese maintained a garrison on the adjacent island, also called Tabarka, which lies about 365 yards (334 m) off the town. In 1540 the island was given by the Ottoman Bey of Tunis as a concession to the Genoese Lomellini family.[13] The Genoese were in the service of Spain during 1553 at the request of Emperor Charles V who was interested in coral fishing. The Lomellini were part of the circle of Andrea Doria, Doge of Genoa, and were related to the Grimaldi family. The grant was possibly due to a secret ransom for the release of the pirate Turkish Dragut, captured in 1540 by Giannettino Doria, nephew of Andrea Doria. The Lomellini colonized Tabarca with a group of inhabitants of Pegli,[14] near Genoa, where they had various properties and a huge palace. The community of Pegliesi lived in Tabarka for several centuries.

In 1738 due to the exhaustion of the coral reefs and the deterioration of relations with the Arab population a large group of "Tabarkini" moved to San Pietro Island off Sardinia, then uninhabited, where they founded a new town of Carloforte. The transfer was made possible thanks to the King of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia who wanted to colonize those of his lands which were not yet inhabited. The name of Carloforte was chosen in honor of the sovereign. Another group of Tabarkini was resettled in the town of Calasetta on the adjacent Island of Sant'Antioco, whose population still speaks a variant of Genoese dialect originating from Tabarka.[15] Others were moved to the Spanish island of New Tabarca.[16] In 1741[citation needed] or 1742,[12] the Genoese fortress surrendered to the (nominally Ottoman but essentially autonomous) Bey of Tunis. At Tabarka, the ruins consists of a pit once used as a church and some fragments of walls which belonged to Christian buildings. There were also two Ottoman Turkish fortresses, one of which has been repaired.

Close view

Under French colonial rule it was annexed to the civil district of Souk el-Arba, now in the Tunisian governorate of Jendouba, and a rather important fishing centre. Tabarka Jazz Festival was established in 1973.

Ecclesiastical history

Tabarka Fort

Thabraca became a Christian bishopric that is no longer a residential see but is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[11]

View of Tabarka's fort
Snow in Tabarka's forest
Tabarka snowfall in a forest

was also the seat of an ancient Bishopric and in antiquity it had a monastery for men and one for women,[12] and several church Buildings and Christian cemeteries have been uncovered.[17] The city contains several Christian cemeteries, many of the tombs covered with curious mosaics. An inscription (C.I.L., VIII, 173-82) mentions the cult of the martyr Anastasia and her companions.

Bishops

The bishops of Thabraca, who met with the other bishops of Proconsular Africa, included:

  • Victoricus, at the Council of Carthage (256)[18]
  • Rusticianus, at the conference of Carthage in 411, where his competitor was the Donatist Charentius; he also signed in 416 the letter from the council of Proconsular Africa to Pope Innocent I;
  • Clarissimus, who in 646 signed the letter from the same Council to Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople against the Monothelites.

The Bishopric was founded during the Roman Empire and survived through the arian Vandal and Orthodox Byzantine empires, only ceasing to function with the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb. The diocese was re-founded in name at least in the 20th century as a titular see of the Roman Catholic church.[19][20]

Titular bishops

Weather

Climate

The weather in Tabarka is usually variable from year to year. Summers are mostly hot and dry, but milder than the Saharan hinterland. It barely rains in July and August. The average temperatures for this season is 28.2 °C (82.8 °F). Winters are mostly rainy and cold. Snow is possible during this time of the year. The average temperature for this season is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F).

Climate data for Tabarka (1981-2010, mean monthly temperature and precipitation 1994–2019, extremes 1953–2017)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
29.2
(84.6)
36.5
(97.7)
37.0
(98.6)
41.4
(106.5)
47.1
(116.8)
47.4
(117.3)
48.4
(119.1)
43.3
(109.9)
39.7
(103.5)
33.2
(91.8)
28.1
(82.6)
48.4
(119.1)
Average high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
16.1
(61.0)
18.2
(64.8)
20.7
(69.3)
24.8
(76.6)
28.7
(83.7)
31.7
(89.1)
32.1
(89.8)
29.3
(84.7)
25.9
(78.6)
20.6
(69.1)
17.0
(62.6)
23.4
(74.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
16.2
(61.2)
19.6
(67.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.0
(78.8)
26.5
(79.7)
23.8
(74.8)
20.8
(69.4)
16.3
(61.3)
13.1
(55.6)
18.6
(65.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
7.6
(45.7)
8.9
(48.0)
10.9
(51.6)
14.0
(57.2)
17.1
(62.8)
19.9
(67.8)
20.6
(69.1)
18.8
(65.8)
15.8
(60.4)
11.9
(53.4)
8.9
(48.0)
13.5
(56.3)
Record low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.2
(32.4)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.0
(37.4)
7.5
(45.5)
8.5
(47.3)
9.0
(48.2)
8.5
(47.3)
4.0
(39.2)
0.5
(32.9)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 159
(6.3)
128
(5.0)
102
(4.0)
92
(3.6)
47
(1.9)
17
(0.7)
4
(0.2)
14
(0.6)
65
(2.6)
107
(4.2)
164
(6.5)
170
(6.7)
1,069
(42.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.9 10.6 9.8 8.8 5.3 2.1 0.7 1.7 5.1 8.5 11.5 11.3 87.3
Average relative humidity (%) 72 73 73 72 72 70 65 68 70 71 75 74 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 134.4 179.8 210.0 241.8 282.0 316.2 297.6 240.0 201.5 126.0 117.8 2,468
Source: Institut National de la Météorologie (days/humidity/sun 1961–1990)[21][22][23][note 1]
Tabarka mean sea temperature[26]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
16 °C (61 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 16 °C (61 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 24 °C (75 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 17 °C (63 °F)

Transport

The airport in Tabarka was named Airport 7 Novembre until the Tunisian revolution; it was then renamed Tabarka-Ain Draham International Airport.

See also

  • mapAfrica portal

Featured in film, The Golden Salamander, with Trevor Howard, Herbert Lom and Anouk Aimee.{Paul Thomson}

Gallery

  • Modifier (211301149).jpeg
  • Port de Tabarka.jpg
  • Tabarka - Golf Beach - panoramio.jpg
  • Vue de la mer du Port de Tabarka.jpg
  • ViewTabarkaBorj.JPG
  • Tabarka le soir.jpg
  • Tabarka Jendouba.png
  • Aiop.jpg
  • Tabarka port 02.jpg

References

Citations

  1. ^ Derek Hopwood & Sue Mi Terry, Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia:The Tragedy of Longevity, Springer 2016 p.72
  2. ^ Elżbieta Lisowscy, DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Tunisia, Dorling Kindersley 2011 p.41
  3. ^ Donna Wheeler, Paul Clammer & Emilie Filou, Tunisia: Lonely Planet, 2010 p.284
  4. ^ Head & al. (1911), p. 886.
  5. ^ Ghaki (2015), p. 67.
  6. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary". Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  7. ^ Chapot, V. (1928). The Roman World. Knopf. p. 385. ISBN 9780819603678. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  8. ^ Hornblower, S.; Spawforth, A.; Eidinow, E. (2012). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. OUP Oxford. p. 33. ISBN 9780199545568. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  9. ^ Conant, J. (2012). Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780521196970. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  10. ^ Saint Augustine; Rotelle, J.E.; Teske, R.J. (2001). Letters 1-99. New City Press. p. 264. ISBN 9781565481633. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  11. ^ a b Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 979
  12. ^ a b c d e f Thabraca at Catholic Encyclopedia.org
  13. ^ Thomas Allison Kirk, Genoa and the Sea, JHU Press, 2013
  14. ^ "L'Isola di Tabarka e le tracce dei genovesi". www.lastampa.it. May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  15. ^ "Calasetta". Sardegna Turismo. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  16. ^ Varela, Santiago (1983). "Nueva Tabarca / Nova Tabarca: 1. Generalidades / 1. Generalitats". Alicante / Alacant, Tabarca: Rutas de aproximación al patrimonio cultural valenciano / Rutes d'aproximació al patrimoni cultural valencià (in Spanish and Catalan). Juan Calduch; Joaquín Lara (graphic dessing). Servicio de patrimonio arquitectónico: Conselleria de Cultura, Educación y Ciencia: Generalidad Valenciana.
  17. ^ Thabraca at New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia.
  18. ^ A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, Anterior to the Division of the East and West, Volume 17 (J.H. Parker, 1844) p294.
  19. ^ Titular Episcopal See of Thabraca at GCatholic.org.
  20. ^ a b Thabraca at catholic-hierarchy.org.
  21. ^ "Les normales climatiques en Tunisie entre 1981 2010" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Données normales climatiques 1961-1990" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  23. ^ "Les extrêmes climatiques en Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  24. ^ "Réseau des stations météorologiques synoptiques de la Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  25. ^ 2021 ASHRAE HANDBOOK—FUNDAMENTALS (I-P). American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2021. p. 1024. ISBN 9781947192898. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  26. ^ Weather2Travel - Tabarka. Retrieved 2 July 2020.

Notes

  1. ^ The Station ID for Tabarka is 22525211.[24]

Bibliography

  • Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Thabraca" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Ghaki, Mansour (2015), "Toponymie et Onomastique Libyques: L'Apport de l'Écriture Punique/Néopunique" (PDF), La Lingua nella Vita e la Vita della Lingua: Itinerari e Percorsi degli Studi Berberi, Studi Africanistici: Quaderni di Studi Berberi e Libico-Berberi, vol. No. 4, Naples: Unior, pp. 65–71, ISBN 978-88-6719-125-3, ISSN 2283-5636, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2020, retrieved 3 November 2018. (in French)
  • Head, Barclay; et al. (1911), "Numidia", Historia Numorum (2nd ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 884–887.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tabarka.
  • Tabarka.Com Tabarka Guide
  • Tabarka.Org
  • Photo gallery of Tabarka in 1924. French Naval Intelligence
  • WorldStatesmen-Tunisia
  • Reading Room Manchester. "CWGC – Cemetery Details". cwgc.org. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
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